Let’s find out how does the internet works by going to understand the details of this data’s incredible journey. the data centers which may be thousands of miles away from you have your Internet Queries stored inside them.
how does this data reach your mobile or a laptop?
An easy way to achieve this goal would be with the utilization of satellites. From the data center, a signal can be sent to the satellite via an antenna, then from the satellite, a signal could be sent to your mobile via another antenna near to you. However, this way of transmitting signals isn’t a decent idea.
Let’s see why.
The satellite is parked nearly 22,000 miles above the earth’s equator, so so as for the data transmission to achieve success, the data would need to travel a complete distance of 44,000 miles. Such a long distance of travel causes a major delay in receiving the signal. More specifically it causes huge latency which is unacceptable for many internet applications. so if this article doesn’t reach you via a satellite, then how does it actually get to you?
Well, it’s through with the assistance of a complicated network of glass fiber cables, which connect between the data center and your device. Your phone might be connected to the internet via cellular data or any Wi-Fi router, but ultimately at some point, your phone will be connected to this network of glass fiber.
SSD/HDD acts as the internal memory of a server. The server is just a powerful computer whose job is to supply you this article or other stored content when you request it. Now the challenge is the way to transfer the info stored within the data center specifically to your device via the complex network of glass fiber cables.
Let’s see how this is done.
Before proceeding further, we should always first understand a crucial concept which is that the concept of an IP address. Every device that’s connected to the internet whether it’s a server a computer or a mobile phone is identified uniquely by a string of numbers known as an IP address. You can consider the IP address almost like your home address that’s the address, that uniquely identifies your home. Any letter sent to you reaches you exactly due to your home address.
Similarly in the internet world, an IP address acts as a shipping address through which all information reaches its destination. Your internet service provider will decide the IP address of your device and you’re able to see what IP address your ISP has given to your mobile or laptop. The server in the data center also has an IP address. The server stores an internet site so you’ll access any website just by knowing the server’s IP address. However, it’s difficult for an individual to recollect numerous IP addresses. So, to unravel this problem domain names like youtube.com, facebook.com, etc are used which correspond to IP addresses which are easier for us to remember than the long sequence of numbers Another thing to notice here is that a server has the capability of storing several websites and if the server consists of multiple websites all the websites can’t be accessed with the server’s IP address.
In such cases additional pieces of information, host headers are used to uniquely identify the website. However, for large websites like Facebook.com or YouTube.com the whole data center infrastructure are going to be dedicated to the storage of the particular website.
To access the internet, we always use domain names rather than complex IP address numbers. From where does the internet get IP addresses like our name requests. Well, for this purpose the web uses an enormous phone book referred to as DNS. If you know a person’s name, but do not know their phone number you’ll simply look it up during a phone book. The DNS server provides the same service to the internet.
Your internet service provider or other organizations can manage the DNS server. Let’s have a recap of the entire operation. You enter the name, the browser sends a request to the DNS server to urge the corresponding IP address. After getting the IP address, your browser simply forwards the request to the data center, more specifically to the respective server.
Once the server gets a request to access a specific website the data flow starts. the data is transferred in digital format via optical fiber cables, more specifically in the sort of light pulses. These light pulses sometimes need to travel thousands of miles via the glass fiber cable to reach their destination. During their journey, they often need to go through tough terrains like hilly areas or under the ocean. There are a couple of global companies that lay and maintain these optical cable networks.
how the laying of glass fiber cables is completed with the assistance of a ship. A plow is dropped deep into the ocean from the ship, and this plow creates a trench on the seabed and to which places the glass fiber cable.
In fact, this complex optical cable network is that the backbone of the internet. These glass fiber cables carrying the light are stretched across the seabed to the doorstep where they’re connected to a router.
The router converts these light signals to electrical signals. An ethernet cable is then used to transmit the electrical signals to your laptop. However, if you’re accessing the internet using cellular data, from the optical cable the signal has to be sent to a cell tower, and from the cell tower, the signal reaches your telephone within the sort of electromagnetic waves.
Since the internet is a global network, it’s become important to have an organization to manage things like IP address assignment, domain name registration, etc this is often all managed by an institution called ICANN located in the USA.
One amazing thing about the internet is its efficiency in transmitting data in comparison with cellular and landline communication technologies. This video you’re watching from the Google Data Center is sent to you in the form of a huge collection of zeros and ones. What makes the data transfer on the internet efficient is the way in which these zeros and ones are chopped up into small chunks known as packets and transmitted. Let’s assume these streams of zeros and ones are divided into different packets by the server where each packet consists of six bits.
Along with the bits of the video, each packet also consists of the sequence number and the IP addresses of the server and your phone. With this information, the packets are routed towards your phone. it’s not necessary that all packets are routed through the same path and each packet independently takes the best route available at that time. Upon reaching your phone the packets are reassembled according to their sequence number.
If it is the case that any packets fail to reach your phone and acknowledgment is sent from your phone to resend the lost packets. Now compare this with a postal network with good infrastructure, but the customers do not follow the basic rules regarding the destination addresses.
In this scenario, letters won’t be able to reach the correct destination. Similarly, on the internet, we use something called protocols for the management of this complex flow of data packets.
The protocols set the principles for data packet conversion, attachment of the source and destination addresses to each packet, and the rules for routers, etc for different applications the protocols used are different.