Understanding Mobile Node, Home and Foreign Agent in Mobile IP.

This is (9th Article) in continuation of our last one article, a new series of networking articles. In this segment, we are going to discuss Mobile nodes, Home and Foreign Agents which play an important role in working on Mobile IP.

Mobile IP is the actual next expansion of Mobile voice communication. Advances in wireless network system technology have gigantically changed different parameters like procedure, strategy, observation, quality, and attributes of voice communication. Therefore, improvements in wireless data protocols have prepared mobile IP for data communication.

What cell technology, Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication or phones accomplish for communication, Mobile IP will accomplish for TCP/IP-based methods of data transport. IP Internet has gotten universal in wireline conditions. Support of mobility is as of now accessible today in certain structures using satellite access to an Internet specialist organization (ISP).

Mobile IP gives a stage to carriers to offer guaranteed and non stop access to the Internet or a private IP based system. IP datagram is a packet with information in addition to header fields of various layers of the Internet design. This resembles a letter that contains a message in addition to other information like sender and collector names, addresses, pin codes, and so forth.

An IP datagram conveys both source and destination addresses of data. Along these lines, if the source or destination changes, the connection gets void until and unless the changed IP address is notified to all clients.

In conventional wired Internet networks, when a client gets connected with the Internet, the point of attachment is made through an address known as IP address. This IP address is joined to a fixed connected position.

In wireless availability, when a client is connected, the person is connected with an IP address that is valid over the inclusion region cell of the wireless network. The mobile client changes location dynamically with time. Hence, connected fixed IP addresses of the wired Internet will be of no use to help available to the mobile client.

Then again, there is no assurance that mobility will be constrained to the inclusion zone if there should be an occurrence of wireless availability. The IP address needs to change when the mobile client moves from his own inclusion or cell region to stay in connectivity.

One basic solution is to not allocating a fixed IP address. There is a prerequisite to dynamically change the IP address. Another protocol called DHCP settles (which we have covered in our previous article, Link) the expressed issue. DHCP permits the expected client to get a temporary IP address dynamically.

This is a straightforward management solution. A temporary address has two significant drawbacks: Temporary Address Notification and System Upgradation. Other different nodes can only with significant effort start transmissions to the mobile node (MN) as they do not know about its new IP address. Also, each time a mobile system acquires another IP address, Internet client software applications must be restarted.

Once more, temporary addresses don’t let a mobile client roam seamlessly starting with one zone then onto the next. This makes a bottleneck, particularly for wireless local area networks (LANs). For instance, a specialist with a wireless LAN connection needs to keep up IP connections all through the medical clinic as the person gets to patient records. This is the place the requirement for an alternate arrangement by mobile IP emerges.

Mobile IP enables mobile clients to remain connected with the Internet regardless of their location and without changing their IP address. It permits them a fixed IP address for being connected with any IP subnet and quickly be reachable from the Internet.

Request for Comments (RFC) characterizes it as, “Mobile IP is an upgrade of the Internet Protocol that includes components for sending Internet traffic to mobile phones when they are interfacing through other than their home system.” Mobile IP is additionally characterized as an expansion to the untethered office idea, permitting liberated access to the Internet or corporate systems whenever from any area.

An IP address remarkably recognizes the physical connection to the subnet of Internet availability. At the point when a source and a destination communicate over the Internet, they generally use TCP for end-to-end logical connection. At the point when this logical connection is made, a TCP port number is allotted at both source and destination ends with the goal that these two hosts stay in connection. Each end to end TCP logical connection is remarkably distinguished by four qualities: source IP address, source TCP port, destination IP address and destination TCP port. These stay fixed and static for the duration of the connection.

The basic problem with the Mobile Node (MN) is that it may move from network to network. Therefore, the challenge in mobile IP is to manage MN’s IP address while dynamically changing location so that MN can always communicate with its permanent IP address. The solution is made with the proposed working principle of mobile IP.

A Node that changes its position dynamically however continues speaking with some other system on the internet is defined as Mobile Node (MN). Home system (HN) is the subnet MN longs for. MN has its IP address with the home subnet. No mobile IP support is required when MN conveys inside HN. Foreign system (FN) is the subnet aside from HN. The current subnet is where MN node is visiting at present.

MNs are allotted out of two IP addresses. 

The first is called the Home Address. Home IP address is a static address used to distinguish the end to end connection and is used by MN when connected with its HN.

The second address is the Care Of Address (COA). It is not static. It is a dynamic address used for packet routing and is used by MN and FN. CAO changes each time MN changes to another sub-network. All IP datagrams sent to MN are conveyed to COA.

There are two agents: Foreign Agent and Home Agent.

These are known as Mobility Agents. These are mobile IP servers or routers that know where MN is really connected. The home agent is HN’s Mobile IP agent, which has the duty of sending MN’s packets to FN where MN is really connected.

what is home agent and foreign agent in mobile IP, Understanding Mobile Node, Home and Foreign Agent in Mobile IP., TechRX

Foreign Agent is liable for conveying packets to the MN. It offers numerous types of assistance to MN during its visit to FN. It tracks COA, going about as the tunnel endpoint and sending packets to MN. The foreign agent is situated in FN. It is the default router for MN when it is in FN. It additionally gives security services to MN.

Home Agent is located in HN. It forwards IP packets to MN via COA. It maintains linked coordination between the home IP address of MN and its COA. A tunnel is established by a home agent between itself and a reachable point (usually COA) for MN when it is in FN.

If you have any suggestions or thoughts, just comment down below.

Related Concepts:

1. Understanding the Communication and Internet Beginning

2. Understanding the idea of Internet, OSI Model and TCP Model

3. Understanding the TCP Layer and TCP Packet Header

4. Understanding the IP address and IPv4 Packet Header

5. Understanding the UDP Headers, ARP and RARP Protocol

6. Understanding the IPv6 Address and IPv6 Packet Headers

7. Understanding the IPv6 Extension Headers and ICMP

8. Understanding Address Resolution between IPv4 and IPv6, Bootstrap Protocol and DHCP


  • what is home agent and foreign agent in mobile IP, Understanding Mobile Node, Home and Foreign Agent in Mobile IP., TechRX

    My name is Biplab Das. I’m the leader of TechRX and Founder of and Professionally I'm a full-time IT support engineer whose childhood obsession with science fiction never quite faded. A quarter-century later, the technology that I coveted as a kid is woven into the fabric of everyday life. People say smartphones are boring these days, but I think everyone is beginning to take this wonderful technology marvel for granted.

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